Beans are a leguminous plant that is used in cooking as individual side dishes, as well as ingredients for preparing salads, soups and other tasty dishes. At the moment there are about 96 different types of bean.
Eat legumes in food began around 1500. The homeland of this plant is considered to be Latin America. Later, when the cultivation of bean began around the world, in many countries, bean dishes were considered food for the poor. Nowadays, beans are quite popular in all sectors of society due to their useful properties.
From the bean you can make a huge amount of tasty and healthy dishes. It is added to salads, second courses, prepared as a side dish, closed for the winter, and ground into flour and make delicious cakes. In Korea, China and Japan, bean flour is even made of special sweets, and the British consume fried bean in large quantities.
Most vegetarians include various types of beans in their diet, as it acts as a substitute for meat due to the content of healthy trace elements in it. Also very often, nutritionists recommend legumes for ingestion to those who are on a diet and watching their weight.
Types of Beans
There are about 96 varieties of beans that have significant differences between them. The most popular and frequently used varieties are the following:
- Siliculose (asparagus, green);
- red (curly);
- white (sugar);
Green bean, or asparagus, green bean are added to dishes or prepared from her side dish, using not only bean, but the whole pod. That is why the product has received such a name. The secret to the taste of such beans is that its pods need to be collected while they are still quite young and tender, because if you are late with the collection, the dish will be hard. Over-grown green bean can be recognized by the formed beans inside.
Red bean are a climbing plant with oblong thick pods, inside of which are red bean. Fruits have a glossy surface and slightly curved shape. Most often, red beans are used in the preparation of soups and side dishes, but often it is added to salads.
As for white bean, it must be boiled before further use, as it is rather tough in its raw form. When cooking, the water should slightly cover the legumes, and in the process of cooking the beans cannot be mixed.
Decorative beans are not eaten. It is used to decorate courtyards or garden plots, as the plant curls beautifully and has beautiful purple flowers.
Black bean have a silky black color, as well as a sweet-smoked flavor. Used for making salads, first courses, and often for baking or desserts.
Sowing, planting and care
Sowing, planting and caring for bean is a rather laborious process. Especially if you take into account the fact that each legume has its own rules and recommendations for planting. However, we will help you figure it out.
Here are a few basic rules that you need to follow regardless of what kind of bean you are going to plant:
It is necessary to choose a landing site that is well lit, has no drafts and is not in the wind.
Watering the beans often need a lot.
Before sowing, the seeds are usually soaked for several days in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Plant in the whole need two seeds.
A prerequisite for planting beans is a light fertile soil. Nearby should not pass groundwater, and the land should not be clay. Also before sowing should fertilize the soil with humus or ammonium nitrate. Due to this, the growth of beans will be accelerated several times.
Sowing any kind of beans usually falls on the end of April or May, but in the spring there is a high probability of frost. Therefore, before planting the beans need to prepare. To do this, they are soaked in warm water overnight. It is not recommended to leave the beans in water for longer than fifteen hours, as the seeds will soften and will not sprout.
It is possible to sow legumes when during several days the temperature of the day will not be lower than fifteen degrees during the day. For this you need to make holes with a depth of no more than five centimeters. The distance from the hole to the hole in the same row should be at least twenty centimeters, and between the rows – forty centimeters. Beans should be planted exclusively in a staggered manner.
After you have planted the required number of beans, the bed should be poured abundantly with water and leveled evenly with a rake.
Until the beans start to bloom, they should be watered no more than once a week. After flowering, you can increase the amount of watering twice. Do not forget to pick up the weeds in time, otherwise the bean will lack moisture and nutrients from the ground.
After the size of the plant reaches two meters, it must be fixed on top in order for the fruits to begin to set.
It is necessary to collect bean depending on its grade:
- Collect asparagus bean while the beans have not yet begun to tangle, and the pods are rather tender and soft;
- the bean themselves need to be collected at a time when the pods are as fleshy and large as possible;
- bean for seedlings are harvested when it is overripe and began to turn black
If you follow our recommendations, you will be able to grow tasty and nutritious beans, from which you can later prepare a lot of delicious dishes!
Benefit and harm
The benefits and harm of beans are due to its composition. The benefit of the product can bring the body due to the content of trace elements and vitamins. But, besides this, it can also be harmful if you do not follow the rules of its use. We will tell you more about it right now.
The benefits of beans are related to the following:
As in all other legumes, bean contain proteins and amino acids, which help to normalize the metabolism and supply the muscles with the necessary energy. Also, legumes of any kind act as a good means of cleansing the body, so almost all nutritionists advise them to use it.
People who suffer from diabetes, to eat boiled bean is also very useful, as it can reduce blood sugar levels due to the content of special trace elements.
The composition of legumes includes a large amount of iron, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, iodine and other trace elements, so that bean can be a useful food for intestinal diseases, as well as bronchitis and rheumatism.
Beans have a diuretic effect, and therefore help prevent swelling of the body, as well as lower blood pressure.
Of the legumes are often prepared masks for the face and body, which return the skin elasticity and smooth it.
As for the damage, it is capable of causing it in raw form. The fact is that such beans contain toxic substances that interfere with the normal operation of the digestive system. This product, when raw, can cause poisoning. To do this, before adding the legumes to food, boil them in hot water to the required state.
How to cook beans in the home?
Beans can be easily prepared at home in various ways, starting with banal preservation, and ending with various pastries and side dishes. The recipes of cooking beans in a huge amount on the Internet, we will only show you exactly what dishes you can make.
First of all I would like to mention the soups and borscht, which are very tasty with the addition of beans. It makes these dishes more nourishing and nutritious, and also improves their taste. Particularly tasty will bean soup with the addition of a small amount of garlic.
The next variety of dishes, in the preparation of which boiled beans are used, is salads. The beauty of legumes is that they are delightfully combined with various products. It is best to make a salad with beans, which will also include some of these products of your choice: meat (chicken breast, pork, beef), cucumbers, carrots, corn, cabbage, boiled eggs, ham, crab sticks, tomatoes, sausage, broccoli , cheese, mushrooms, rice, bell pepper, garlic, liver, tuna, and potatoes. You can add crackers to the salad, making it more original, as well as fill it with a delicious sauce.
Very tasty you can cook stew bean in a slow cooker, and fry it in tomato or tomato sauce. Adding fried onions to the bean, you will emphasize the original taste of the dish and make an excellent snack.
From the beans you can make simple diet burgers that will conquer you with their original taste.
Lobio bean will be pleasant even to children, and you will spend a little time for its preparation.
Another option for cooking bean – smoking. You can also make a side dish in Georgian. The best part is that the calorie content of dishes with bean is usually low if you do not season them with mayonnaise and other fatty foods.
You can also prepare beans for the winter, by preserving it or simply freezing. We will tell about it in more detail in our article.
Preparation for the winter
Harvesting beans for the winter is possible and even necessary! Thus, you will always have on hand almost ready ingredient that can be added to your dishes. You can freeze the beans for the winter, as well as preserve them in glass jars. More about this we will tell right now.
Preservation of boiled bean for the winter is a simple process for those hostesses who at least once closed something with their own hands. In order to properly and tasty canned bean, they must first soak overnight in warm water. But do not overdo it, because the bean should be soaked for no longer than twelve hours! You also need to change the water a couple of times while the beans are infused.
Now you need to boil the bean. This should also be done carefully so that the beans do not boil soft. While the bean are boiling, chop the carrots with onions and simmer in boiling water with vegetable oil for twenty minutes. Then add the bean, as well as all the necessary spices (salt, allspice, vinegar, spices) and cook for about five minutes. Put the prepared dish in sterile jars, let them cool and store in the cellar.
Usually, the green beans are frozen, as it cannot be kept fresh for a long time, and in the winter it is quite problematic to find it in the store. That is why immediately after harvesting the green pods are frozen as follows:
- Thoroughly wash all the asparagus bean pods and place it in one layer on a clean cloth that absorbs moisture well. When frozen asparagus beans on it should be a minimum amount of moisture, and ideally – should not be at all.
- Take special packages for freezing vegetables, cut the beans into convenient pieces for you.
- Spread the beans in bags and put them in the freezer.
You can also blanch the bean before freezing if you want them to retain their natural green color. Remember at the same time that the moisture in the pods should be a minimum! After freezing, you can use the frozen product for its intended purpose.
From all the above information we can conclude that the beans are a very useful product that can make your dishes original and tasty, and you can also make a separate side dish from beans. Do not forget to harvest the bean in time and store the beans properly at home.